The physics experiment that went wrong

Setting
Facts
Categories
When: 1949 - 1959
Family Branch: Ruby
Generation: 1G
Family Member: Stanley Ruby
Citations

Discovery Notebook

Quick experiment
  • Feb 11, 2013

The legend of Wu
  • Dec 11, 2012

Story Events

Citations

Citations

Selected Image Date Publication Author(s) Title Comments
  * Physics Today Frederick Reines and Clyde L. Cowan Neutrino physics
  * Summary Technical Report 1991 National Bureau of Standards Office of Technical Information Low-Temperature Alignment of Radioactive Nuclei

Summary of NBS nuclear alignment experiments

  Physical Review Letters O. C. Kistner and A. W. Sunyar EVIDENCE FOR QUADRUPOLE INTERACTION OF FeAND INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL BINDING ON NUCLEAR GAMMA-RAY ENERGY

Important early Mössbauer paper

  * Physics Today Weak Interactions

This is the meeting that Stan attended, and he took the family on a memorable vacation to the Smoky Mountains.

  * Physics Today Double Beta Decay Appears To Confirm Existing Theory
  * Handbuch der Physik 1957, XLII S. Devons and L. J. B. Goldfarb Angular Correlations

R-R cited in detail as definitive ST

  * Physical Review M. Morita, R.S. Morita and M. Yamada Possible Experiments for Determination of Beta Interactions

Wu suggested this work to visiting Japanese scientists. The footnote contains the best-available summary of the recent RR post-deadline paper.

  * Physics Today Lyle B. Borst The Brookhaven nuclear reactor
  * Physics Today David S. Lieberman and Edgar Lüscher The Mössbauer effect: A conference report

Stan presented paper at the first big Mössbauer conference. He encountered Wu in Urbana for first time since 1958. Conference organized by Frauenfelder and Swerdlow. Lipkin was a key participant. 

  Physical Review H. A. Tolhoek and S. R. de Groot The Angular Correlation Theorem and the Elimination of Interference Terms
 
* January 16, 1934 Zeitschrift fur Physik E. Fermi Attempt at a Theory of Beta Rays

Fermi introduces theory of beta decay, including supposition of the neutrino. Translation published by Fred L. Wilson in the American Journal of Physics, Dec. 1968.

  * July 1, 1935 Physical Review E. J. Konopinski and G. E. Uhlenbeck On the Fermi Theory of Beta Radioactivity
  * June 15, 1936 Physical Review G. Gamow and E. Teller Selection Rules for the β Disintegration
 
February 15, 1937 Physical Review G. Gamow and E. Teller Some Generalizations of the Beta Transformation Theory
  * August 15, 1941 Physical Review E. J. Konopinski and G. E. Uhlenbeck On the Fermi Theory of Beta Radioactivity II: The “Forbidden” Spectra

Part 2 of the K-U modification for "forbidden" beta decay spectra. It led to the expectation of a tensor form in Gamow-Teller decays, which is what RR later confirmed. Later work proved both K-U and RR to be incorrect.

  * April 1, 1942 Physical Review R. E. Marshak Forbidden Transitions in Beta-Decay and Orbital Electron Capture and Spins of Nuclei
  * April 1, 1942 Physical Review R. E. Marshak Forbidden Transitions in Beta-Decay and Orbital Electron Capture and Spins of Nuclei
  * October 1943 Reviews of Modern Physics Emil Jan Konopinski Beta-Decay
  * 1945 Columbia University Library C.S. (Chien-Shiung) Wu Papers, 1945-1994 bulk 1960-1979
  March 1, 1946 C. S. Wu, L. J. Rainwater, and W. W. Havens, Jr. Neutron Scattering in Ortho- and Parahydrogen and the Range of Nuclear Forces

Unclassified paper by Wu, Rainwater and Havens from their Manhattan Project work.

  * 1947 Samuel A. Goudsmit Alsos

Goudsmit's experiences in WWII described in the book preceded his postwar work at Brookhaven and the American Physical Society.

  * March 1, 1947 New York Times William L. Laurence Atomic Laboratory on Long Island To Be a Mighty Research Center; ATOM LABORATORY A RESEARCH CENTER
  * June 22, 1947 New York Times Benjamin Fine Laboratories for the Atomic Age
  * June 1948 Physics Today Howard A. Robinson The challenge of industrial physics
  * July 1948 Physics Today George Gamow The reality of neutrinos
  * October 1, 1948 Physical Review R. D. Albert and C. S. Wu The Beta-Spectrum of S35

Representative of many beta spectrum studies Wu did with collaborators throughout this period

  * December 15, 1948 Physical Review O. Kofoed-Hansen On the Theory of the Recoil in Beta-Decay

Theoretical basis for recoil experiments

  * January 15, 1949 Physical Review C. S. Wu and R. D. Albert The Beta-Ray Spectra of Cu64

Thin source obtained with soap bubble process obtains result expected by Fermi theory, clearing away earlier experimental confusion caused by thick sources. 

 
* February 15, 1949 Physical Review James S. Allen, H. R. Paneth, and A. H. Morrish Electron-Neutrino Angular Correlation in the Beta-Decay of He6

Predecessor He-6 experiment

  * December 1949 Unpublished Richard L. Garwin An Experimental Investigation of the Beta-Gamma Angular Correlation in Beta Decay

Garwin's dissertation was in beta-gamma angular correlation. He later consulted with Wu about the errors in the Rustad-Ruby experiment.

  * January 1, 1950 Physical Review P. Macklin, L. Feldman, L. Lidofsky, and C. S. Wu The Beta-Spectrum of Ca45
  * May 1950 Physica S. R. de Groot and H. A. Tolhoek On the theory of beta-radioactivity | the use of linear combinations of invariants in the interaction Hamiltonian
  * June 1950 Physics Today Alvin M. Weinberg Physics at Oak Ridge
 
* October 1950 Reviews of Modern Physics Chien-Shiung Wu Recent Investigation of the Shapes of Beta-Ray Spectra

Invited paper at APS New York 1950 summarized Wu's beta-decay experimental work.

  * 1951 3Q 1951 Quarterly Report M.D. Hassialis *, R.C. Anderson and S. Ruby * Adsorption of Xanthates on Mineral Surfaces

Paper by Hassialis, Anderson and Ruby reports initial results and describes a future research plan.

  * October 1951 Physics Today The American Physical Society
  * June 1, 1952 Physics Today Walter Kidde Laboratories Established

Stan worked there between 1955-56.

 
* September 15, 1952 Physical Review C. S. Wu, B. M. Rustad, V. Perez-Mendez, and L. Lidofsky The Beta-Spectrum of He6

Used Columbia spectrometer to calculate revised comparative lifetime of He6

 
* December 1, 1952 Physica C. S. Wu BETA DISINTEGRATION, ALLOWED AND FORBIDDEN DECAY

Wu overiew of the coupling constant problem. 
Covers recalculation of He6 endpoint. 
Cites prepublication R-R work via private communication.

  * December 1, 1952 Physica S. R. DE GROOT INTERFERENCE TERMS AND SYMMETRY PRINCIPLES IN THE THEORY OF BETA DECAY WITH MIXED INVARIANTS

Determination of mixing ratios of F and GT, He6 and Ne19 are needed

  * December 1, 1952 Physica O. KOFOED-HANSEN NUCLEAR RECOIL AND DETECTION OF THE NEUTRINO

Review of early recoil experiments says Allen He6 result is “tentative”

  * December 1952 Physics Today New Research Facilities
 
* February 15, 1953 Physical Review Brice M. Rustad and Stanley L. Ruby Correlation Between Electron and Recoil Nucleus in He6 Decay

First publication of Rustad-Ruby results. Together with Allen-Jentschke, seen as definitive determination of Tensor coupling in GT interactions

 
* March 1, 1953 Physical Review D. C. Peaslee The Fermi Term in Beta-Neutrino Correlation

Success of Rustad-Ruby for GT interactions leads to search for similar experiment for F interactions. Peaslee was in the Wu orbit at Columbia and clearly had early knowledge of the Rustad-Ruby results. His letter was submitted before RR was published. Then the Peaslee letter was published in the very next issue.

  * March 21, 1953 Progress of Theoretical Physics Masato MORITA On the Electron-Neutrino Angular Correlation

Early paper by Morita cites Rustad-Ruby results one month after publication.

  * August 1953 Physics Today Thomas H. Johnson The AEC's physics research program
  * December 1953 Annual Review of Nuclear Science E J Konopinski, L M Langer The Experimental Clarification of the Theory of beta-Decay
  * 1954 ProQuest Dissertation Database Stanley Ruby A STUDY OF MONOMOLECULAR FILMS BY TRACER TECHNIQUE

This is a Columbia Ph.D. dissertation for a different Stanley Ruby. Originally, I thought it was an alternate dissertation submitted by our Stan after something went wrong with Wu.

 
September 18, 1954 Nature Bellamy and Moorhouse Report by Bellamy and Moorhouse on Nuclear and Meson Physics International Conference in Glasgow

Report by Bellamy and Moorhouse on Nuclear and Meson Physics International Conference in Glasgow includes summary of Wu’s talk on the interaction in beta decay

  * 1955 Beta- and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy O. Kofoed-Hansen Neutrino Recoil Experiments

Franklin pro-He6 citation 
Can't find 1955 citation,. It was collected in 1965 book but I don’t have text.